Israel | Wikipedia audio article

Israel | Wikipedia audio article

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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:04:12 1 Etymology
00:06:29 2 History
00:06:37 2.1 Prehistory
00:07:17 2.2 Antiquity
00:10:05 2.3 Classical period
00:12:24 2.4 Middle Ages and modern history
00:17:33 2.5 Zionism and British Mandate
00:21:39 2.6 After World War II
00:26:19 2.7 Early years of the State of Israel
00:33:26 2.8 Further conflict and peace process
00:42:28 3 Geography and environment
00:44:59 3.1 Tectonics and seismicity
00:46:34 3.2 Climate
00:48:29 4 Demographics
00:51:50 4.1 Major urban areas
00:53:33 4.2 Language
00:55:06 4.3 Religion
00:57:54 4.4 Education
01:02:04 5 Government and politics
01:04:08 5.1 Legal system
01:06:36 5.2 Administrative divisions
01:07:28 5.3 Israeli-occupied territories
01:14:03 5.4 Foreign relations
01:18:39 5.5 International humanitarian efforts
01:21:02 5.6 Military
01:25:21 6 Economy
01:28:35 6.1 Science and technology
01:32:38 6.2 Transportation
01:34:19 6.3 Tourism
01:34:59 6.4 Energy
01:37:06 7 Culture
01:37:47 7.1 Literature
01:39:23 7.2 Music and dance
01:40:28 7.3 Cinema and theatre
01:41:18 7.4 Media
01:41:52 7.5 Museums
01:43:11 7.6 Cuisine
01:44:40 7.7 Sports
01:48:04 8 See also

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"The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing."
- Socrates

Israel (; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל‬; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎), officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition.Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age. The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces. The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and later British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders. The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, and since the Six-Day War in 1967 he ...