Structure of Environment :  Lithosphere

Structure of Environment : Lithosphere

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Structure of Environment : Lithosphere

Everything in Earth's system can be placed into one of four major subsystems: land, water, living things, or air. These four subsystems are called “spheres.” Specifically, they are the lithosphere (land), hydrosphere (water), biosphere (living things), and atmosphere (air).

A lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater.

Earth's lithosphere. Earth's lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. The lithosphere is subdivided into tectonic plates.
The lithosphere is the upper part of the earth. It includes the crust and the solid portion of the mantle. Lithosphere interacts with atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere and produces the pedosphere (the soil with its biotic and abiotic components)

Many different plants and animals live in the Lithosphere. Some live above the ground and others live underground. Bacteria and micro-organisms, like protozoa, help to break down dead organic material (consisting of plants and animals).